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Deduction Games

There are many types of writing, by thinking about what the author wants a piece of writing to do (its purpose) you can better decide how to read it.
Remember to look at any pictures, charts, graphs and other features too. Take in all the information you're given to learn as much as you can.

Fiction and poems

Poets and authors use similes and metaphors to describe things. It’s easy to get similes and metaphors mixed up because they are very similar, but they aren’t quite the same.
A simile describes something by comparing it to another thing using like or as.
The snake moved like a ripple on a pond.
It was as slippery as an eel.


A metaphor is a word or a phrase used to describe something as if it were something else.
A wave of terror washed over him.
A man running away from a giant wave
The terror isn’t actually a wave, but a wave is a good way of describing the feeling of terror.
Metaphors and similes make stories and poems more interesting and are often used in other forms of writing.


Non-fiction writing should contain facts but two writers may have different points of view (bias). They will write about the same facts but in different ways. For example, they might agree what day something happened but disagree about why it happened.
Non-fiction (factual) writing includes newspaper articles and reference books.
Information in a well-known encyclopaedia is more likely to be correct than something you’ve found on someone’s home-made website. Just because something's written down doesn't mean it's true!
Ask other people if they think a particular writer, book or website can be trusted and compare several different writers’ opinions and facts.

Scanning for information

When reading non-fiction, it’s often useful to scan pages quickly to look for a particular piece of information. Read chapter titles, headings and look for pictures and other clues. This will help you get to what you need quickly, without having to read the whole book.

Newspaper reports and adverts

Newspaper reports are usually based on facts. Even so, different writers will see the same story from different points of view (bias). It’s always wise to compare several different reports if you want a balanced view.


Adverts, brochures, leaflets and posters have a definite point of view (bias). They want to sell you something, so they're only going to tell you good things. Watch out for exaggeration (making things sound better than they actually are)! They often show you something positive - but it has nothing to do with what's being sold. They just want you to think about nice things when you think about their product.
A girl happy with her Corn Puffs: makes you fly
When reading adverts, always ask yourself what the writer hasn’t told you about the product, and whether what they are writing about is really anything to do with what they are selling.

Use deductive reasoning to find your way across town.

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