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Present Perfect Continuous (I have been doing)

Pada kesempatan ini saya akan me-review (mengulang kembali) tentang Present Perfect Continuous (I have been doing) yang diambil dari sumber buku yang sangat populer di kalangan pencinta Bahasa Inggris seperti: siswa, mahasiswa, guru, dosen atau mungkin anda juga, yakni English Grammar In Use karangan Raymond Murphy.
Jika anda ingin memahami unit ini ada baiknya anda membaca terlebih dahulu unit 13, 14, dan 15 present perfect (I have done).

Present perfect continuous digunakan ketika kita mengungkapkan tentang satu tindakan atau aksi yang belum lama terjadi, yang dimulai pada masa lampau kemudian selesai belum lama ini atau baru saja selesai. Untuk lebih jelas silahkan perhatikan contoh situasi berikut:

1. Study this example situation:

Is it raining?
No, It isn't but the ground is wet.

It has been raining.

This is the present perfect continuous tense:

I/we/they/you  have (= I've etc.) been raining.
he/she/it          has (= he's etc) been raining.

Situasi di atas menunjukan bahwa tanah dalam keadaan basah. Belum lama itu turun hujan. Tapi hujannya baru saja berhenti. Perhatikan penjelasan dari Raymond Murphy berikut ini:
We use the present perfect continuous when we talk about an action (quit a long action which began in the past and has recently stopped or just stopped. Here are some example:
  • You're out of breath. Have you been running?
  • That man over there is bright red. I think he's been sunbathing.
  • Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing?
Jelas sekali bukan?

2. Akan tetapi penggunaan present perfect contionous juga dapat digunakan ketika sebuah kejadian pada masa lampau dan terus berlangsung hingga sekarang.
Lihat contoh situasi berikut:

It is raining now. It began to rain two hours ago and it is still raining.

It has been raining for two hours.

We often use the present perfect continuous in this way, especially with how long, for and since.
Lihat contoh yang lainnya:
  • How long have you been learning English?
  • They have been waiting here for over an hour.
  • I've been watching television since 2 o'clock.
  • George hasn't been feeling very well recently.
  • Have you been working hard today?

Anda juga dapat menggunakan present perfect continuous menggunakan how long, for dan since untuk aktivitas yang berulang-ulang:
  • She has been playing tennis since she was eight.
  • How long have you been smoking?
Saya kira penjelasan dari Raymond Murphy sendiri sudah sangat jelas. Silahkan anda pelajari sendiri dan anda akan menyadari belajar Tenses tidaklah sesulit yang kita bayangkan.
Untuk tambahan tentang present perfect continuous agar lebih mudah anda memahaminya.

How do we make the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?

The structure of the present perfect continuous tense is:
subject+auxiliary verb+auxiliary verb+main verb
have
has
beenbase + ing


subjectauxiliary verbauxiliary verbmain verb
+Ihavebeenwaitingfor one hour.
+Youhavebeentalkingtoo much.
-Ithasnotbeenraining.
-Wehavenotbeenplayingfootball.
?Haveyoubeenseeingher?
?Havetheybeendoingtheir homework?

Contractions

When we use the present perfect continuous tense in speaking, we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.

I have beenI've been
You have beenYou've been
He has been
She has been
It has been
John has been
The car has been
He's been
She's been
It's been
John's been
The car's been
We have beenWe've been
They have beenThey've been
Here are some examples:
  • I've been reading.
  • The car's been giving trouble.
  • We've been playing tennis for two hours.

How do we use the Present Perfect Continuous Tense?

This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense. There is usually a connection with the present or now. There are basically two uses for the present perfect continuous tense:

1. An action that has just stopped or recently stopped

We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and stopped recently. There is usually a result now.
I'm tired because I've been running.
pastpresentfuture

!!!
Recent action.Result now.
  • I'm tired [now] because I've been running.
  • Why is the grass wet [now]? Has it been raining?
  • You don't understand [now] because you haven't been listening.

2. An action continuing up to now

We use the present perfect continuous tense to talk about an action that started in the past and is continuing now. This is often used with for or since.
I have been reading for 2 hours.
pastpresentfuture


Action started in past.Action is continuing now.
  • I have been reading for 2 hours. [I am still reading now.]
  • We've been studying since 9 o'clock. [We're still studying now.]
  • How long have you been learning English? [You are still learning now.]
  • We have not been smoking. [And we are not smoking now.]

For and Since with Present Perfect Continuous Tense

We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.
  • We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
  • We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.
forsince
a period of timea point in past time

x
20 minutes6.15pm
three daysMonday
6 monthsJanuary
4 years1994
2 centuries1800
a long timeI left school
everthe beginning of time
etcetc
Here are some examples:
  • I have been studying for 3 hours.
  • I have been watching TV since 7pm.
  • Tara hasn't been feeling well for 2 weeks.
  • Tara hasn't been visiting us since March.
  • He has been playing football for a long time.
  • He has been living in Bangkok since he left school.
Good luck

.::Related Posts:

2 comments:

Barly Semen on Sunday, October 07, 2012 8:48:00 AM said... Reply

It's benevit, Sir. Thx.
I have any question: when to use just "I" and use "I'm". It's confusing. You're welcome.

Anggie on Monday, October 14, 2013 10:44:00 PM said... Reply

Sungguh tulisan yang sangat bagus untuk para pelajar yang ingin meningkatkan kemampuan bahasa inggrisnya.

Salam dari Anggie, Metode Baru Menjawab Toefl.
http://carajawab.com


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